It is shown that concatenable double-ended queues can be simulated in real- time by double-ended queues without concatenation. Consequently, every. A concatenable queue can perform these operations in just O(log N) time, where of the lc-hull are stored in a concatenable queue sorted by their y-coordinate. concatenable queue (implemented e.g. as a tree [8]). The order in Using the concatenable queue representation, we can split cycles or concatenate two.

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Comparing the performance of an array, a single-linked list, and a doubly-linked list.

Concatenable queue pdf

The doubly-linked list is the most efficient:. Priority queues are used in sorting algorithms.

A heap is one possible realization of the priority queue. A buffer tree is an example of an external memory realization of the priority queue. Intrusive containers link the object with other objects in the container rather than storing a copy of the object.

Contrast this with non-intrusive containers that store a concatfnable of an object. They can’t store non-copyable and non-movable objects [3]. Semantically, ckncatenable containers are similar to non-intrusive containers holding pointers to objects. Addison-Wesley, 1st Edition, Static data structures are only for querying.

Concatenable queue pdf

Dynamic data structures support updating. Implicit data organization uses pointers. Explicit data organization uses mathematical relationships. Internal memory first level memory – RAM. Sequence Sequence stores elements in a linear order.


The doubly-linked list is the most efficient: Operations of retrieving and removing the largest element are supported removeMax. Examples of the priority queue data structures: Scheduling systems Sorting e. The idea is to insert elements to the queue one-by-one and then remove them from the queue in decreasing order using removeMax. Dictionary and Trees An implicit realization of the dictionary can be provided by a hash table.

B-tree is a two-level memory data structure designed to search in large databases. Fractional cascading technique speeds up searching for the same element in the dictionary. Trie is an ordered tree that is used to store a dynamic set or associative array. In pattern matching and text compression algorithms a trie is a tree in which edges are labeled by letters or words.

Balanced search tree e. AVL-tree, red-black tree, tree, tree A binary search tree is said to be weight balanced if half the nodes are on the left of the root, and a half on the right.

Splay trees are self-adjusting binary search trees used in caches and memory allocators. In a splay tree recently accessed elements have better access times than elements accessed less frequently [3].

AVL trees are balanced binary trees. AVL trees are often compared with red-black trees because they support the same set of operations and because both take O log n time for basic operations. AVL trees are more rigidly balanced than red-black trees, leading to slower insertion and removal but faster retrieval, so AVL trees perform better than red-black trees for lookup-intensive applications [3]. Scapegoat trees are self-balancing binary search trees, that provide worst-case O log n lookup time, and O log n amortized insertion and deletion time.


Unlike other self-balancing binary search trees that provide worst case O log n lookup time, scapegoat trees have no additional per-node overhead compared to a regular binary search tree [3].

Data Structures

Treaps exhibit the properties of both binary search trees and heaps. A treap is a binary search tree that orders the nodes by a key but also by a priority attribute. The nodes are ordered so that the keys form a binary search tree and the priorities obey the max heap order property [3].

Intrusive containers Intrusive containers link the object with other objects in the container rather than storing a copy of the object.

When the container gets destroyed before the object, the object is not destroyed. You have to be careful to avoid resource leaks. When the object is destroyed before it is erased from the container, the container contains a pointer to a non-existing object. Applications of intrusive containers: Applications of data structures Graphs and networks: References [1] Allen B.